A power point presentation on the topic “Embedded System Architecture” with a total of 14 slides.
Embedded System Architecture
What is Embedded System ?
An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function.
Embedded systems may also function within a larger system.
The systems can be programmable or have a fixed functionality.
Embedded System Architecture
- Hardware Architecture
- Software Architecture
The architecture of an embedded system is centered around its microcontroller, also sometimes referred to as the microcontroller unit (MCU), typically a single integrated circuit containing the processor, RAM, flash memory, serial receivers and transmitters, and other core components.
These are typically designed to be inexpensive, low-resource, low-energy consuming, self-contained systems on a single integrated circuit, which is the reason why they are often referred to as System-on-Chip (SoC).
Software architecture can help teams get control over their software.
The first step to designing a software architecture is recognizing that embedded systems don’t have just one architecture.
Instead, there are two architectures: hardware-dependent and independent architecture.
The first principle for modern embedded software design is “Data Dictates Design.”
Hardware Building Block of Embedded System
- Power Supply
- Reset and Oscillator Circuit
- Input Device Interfacing System
- Application Specific Circuits
- Program memory and Data Memory
Most system have a power supply of their own .
The Network Interface Card and Graphic Accelerator are example of embedded system that do not have their own power supply and connect to pc power supply lines .
The Supply has a specific operation range or range of voltage.
A Power source or charge pump is essential in every system.
Reset and Oscillator Circuit
Pressing the reset button causes the program to reset to the application entry at “power-on reset”.
When the reset button is pressed, a developer will find themselves in the processors reset handler.
A developer can then step through all the code including the low-level initializations.
A power-on reset (PoR) is a circuit that provides a predictable, regulated voltage to a microprocessor or microcontroller with the initial application of power .
An oscillator is a circuit which produces a continuous, repeated, alternating waveform without any input.
Oscillators basically convert unidirectional current flow from a DC source into an alternating waveform which is of the desired frequency, as decided by its circuit components.
Processor is the heart of an embedded system.
It is the basic unit that takes inputs and produces an output after processing the data.
For an embedded system designer, it is necessary to have the knowledge of both microprocessors and microcontrollers.
A processor has two essential units − Program Flow Control Unit (CU) Execution Unit (EU).
The CU includes a fetch unit for fetching instructions from the memory.
The EU has circuits that implement the instructions pertaining to data transfer operation and data conversion from one form to another.
A timer is a specialized type of clock which is used to measure time intervals.
A timer that counts from zero upwards for measuring time elapsed is often called a stopwatch.
It is a device that counts down from a specified time interval and used to generate a time delay
Input Device Interfacing
Input interface unit is a type of interface unit which is used in computer system to convert analog signals into digital signals.
It basically converts the user signals into signals used by the computer system.
Input devices are broken down into three categories : Keyboards Pointing devices Data-Entry devices.
System Application Specific Circuits
An application-specific integrated circuit is an integrated circuit (IC) chip customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
An ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) is a microchip designed for a special application, such as a particular kind of transmission protocol or a hand-held computer.
You might contrast it with general integrated circuits, such as the microprocessor and the random-access memory chips in your PC.
Program Memory and Data Memory
Data Memory : Storing the data segment, the heap and the stack of the program
Program Memory : If fast execution is needed the code segment can be moved from the non-volatile memory to the volatile during the reset vector execution.
Program Memory (ROM) is used for permanent saving program being executed, while Data Memory (RAM) is used for temporarily storing and keeping intermediate results and variables